If you do create a new categorical variable, there are two things you must be cautious of. 2 Put the variable you want to recode in the Input Variable → Output Variable box. The Compute Variable window will open where you will specify how to calculate your new variable. If we change the formula for AverageScore3 to MEAN.3(English TO Writing), then any case with three or more nonmissing values will have a successful, nonmissing value for AverageScore3. The general form of the syntax for computing a new (numeric) variable is: The first line gives the COMPUTE command, which specifies the name of the new variable on the left side of the equals sign, and its formula on the right side of the equals sign. Note: This list is not exhaustive. (Stated another way, a given case could have at most one missing test score and still be OK.). These three new categories are called (1) Managerial and professional, (2) Intermediate and (3) Routine, Semi-routine or Unemployed. It makes no difference to the actual analysis it just gives you the option of hiding or emphasising certain variables which might be useful when you are looking at your data. And just as importantly, you’ll have documentation for … These boxes contain the syntax that you will need to paste into the. Change the variable type to String, and set its length to 58. Your final numeric expression should appear as. This video demonstrates how to use the “Compute Variable” functionality in SPSS. Click on Change. Click the Old and New Values button. Frequencies are not allowed. Numeric variables. In order to define a variable and set its parameters you need to get some data into SPSS. We discuss different types of data in detail on Page 1.3 if you want more detail. If you switch to the Variable View on the main screen you will see that bothasp has appeared at the bottom.Before you begin to use it as part of your analysis remember that you will need to define its properties. The default type for new variables is numeric. Suppose you have a nominal variable with more than two categories that you want to use as a predictor in a linear Regression analysis i.e. To create a new string variable, declare the variable with the STRING command before specifying it on RECODE. In the Numeric Expression field, type the following expression: (Alternatively, you can double-click on the variable names in the left column to move them to the Numeric Expression field, and then write the expression around them.) This command changes the name of the variable on the left hand of the equals sign into the name on the right hand. Clicking on the cell for the relevant variable will summon the pop-up menu shown below. To do this we can run a frequency table of our new variable (, Let’s do this transformation using SPSS! Click If (indicated by letter E in the above image) to open the Compute Variable: If Cases window. © 2021 Kent State University All rights reserved. In the Target Variable box, give the variable a new name, such as. If you have siblings or half-siblings, has at least one of them been diagnosed with ADHD? Measure: This is where you define what type of data the variable is represented by. As we said, it is crucial that time is taken to get this right – you are essentially setting the structure of your dataset and therefore all subsequent analyses! pop-up menu. Then, click Continue. You do not need to worry about it but learning it in tandem with learning SPSS will really help your understanding so don’t ignore it! There is an example below –the syntax taken from the process of recoding the SEC variable (also shown in the above syntax alert box): If you want to run the syntax again simply copy and paste it into the Syntax Editor. (If you have tried to run COMPUTE syntax but do not see variables added to your dataset and do not also see error or warning messages in the Output Viewer, you may have forgotten to run the EXECUTE statement.). When merging categorical variables, the new variable will automatically have the same categories as the categorical variables you are merging. With regard to our test data, the syntax below shows how to convert numeric_1 into (previously created) string_3. After you are finished defining the conditions under which your computation will be applied to the data, click Continue. Below we see summary statistics for length. Is it possible, if more than one choice is indicated , for the recode to use a priority system in choosing which one to specify in the new variable? If the /IN subcommand had followed the name of the application file, then cases from that file would have values of 1 … It does not assign "extra risk" if someone has two or more relatives that have been diagnosed. You can use this menu to add variables into a computation: either double-click on a variable to add it to the Numeric Expression field, or select the variable(s) that will be used in your computation and click the arrow to move them to the Numeric Expression text field (C). What we want to do is to average each student’s scores to see what their mean score is from the 4 subjects; thus, creating a mean variable. However there are other benefits too as it allows you to view more concisely the exact process that you have requested that SPSS perform. For this example let’s create a new variable which combines the two existing questions in the LSYPE dataset: 1) Whether or not the parent wants their child to go to full-time education after the age of 16 (the variable named parasp in SPSS, 0 = no; 1= yes). Values: This is another important one as it allows you to code your ordinal and nominal variables numerically. Notice how each line of syntax ends in a period. string #char(a1). SPSS String Function. You can merge two or more variables to form a new variable. We use the recode into same variable or recode into different variableoptions when we want to alter an existing variable. Luckily it is quite similar to English and so is relatively easy to learn – the main difference is the use of grammar and punctuation! Alternatively, you can produce the same result by opening a syntax window (File > New > Syntax) and executing the following code: This syntax can be generated automatically by following the dialog window steps above and clicking Paste instead of OK. Let's instead try computing the average test score using the built-in mean function. SPSS recoding variables data from multiple variables into boolean variables. Explaining how to use SPSS to generate a frequency table of multiple variables that have the same values into one. SPSS users often want to know how they can combine variables together. values 1 and 2 become 1, values 3, 4 and 5 become 2, etc.) The Result. specify a new variable in an ATTRIB statement. After executing the transformation and rerunning the frequency table on the transformed variable, we should see that the counts and frequencies of the previously duplicated categories are now combined: While this variable is still not ready for analysis -- for example, several duplicated categories exist because of misspellings or minor variations in wording -- we have now completed the first step. Select the Data View – click on the tab at the bottom of the program window – start in the first cell of an empty column, and work downwards. If you look at the cell where the response to both variables was ‘yes’ you will see the value of 11090, which is the same value as saw when looking at the frequency of responses for the bothasp variable. When writing an expression in the Compute Variables dialog window: D The center of the window includes a collection of arithmetic operators, Boolean operators, and numeric characters, which you can use to specify how your new variable will be calculated. Simply type the value and label you want in the relevant boxes at the top of the menu and then click Add to place them in the main window. Creating a New SPSS Dataset -- Variable Specification and Data Entry When you open SPSS you will see the Data Editor This shows the Data View of the editor. Figure 1.7.1 shows the frequency table for the bothasp variable. Let’s use the auto data for our examples. C Numeric Expression: Specify how to compute the new variable by writing a numeric expression. Simply type a name for the new variable in the text field. If you want to open a new syntax window simply go File > New > Syntax. You can give these values labels in the normal way using the Values setting. A common string transformation is to convert a string to all uppercase or all lowercase characters. they wanted to go to college or university). For this example, we will use this tiny dataset. We use the Compute function to create totally new variables. so that you can analyse them statistically. string emo_1 to emo_30 (a25). RENAME VARIABLE (varx = vara). Figure 1.7.2 show a crosstabulation of the original aspiration variables. When declaring a new string variable, you should take care to set the width of the string to be wide enough so that your data values aren't accidentally cut short. Suppose we wanted to make a variable called length2 which has lengthsquared. SPSS is not case-sensitive with respect to variable names. This may be because you want to perform a certain type of analysis. This will allow you to specify the conditions under which the computation will be applied to your data. We know this would be inaccurate. This page will talk you through the basics of altering your variables, computing new ones, transforming existing ones and will introduce you to syntax: a computer language that can make the whole process much quicker. Job Category Then you will need to create 2 dummy variables (i.e. A reasonable solution is often to combine or ‘collapse’ categories. Our tutorials reference a dataset called "sample" in many examples. For example you will need to assign numeric values for gender (0 = boys, 1 = girls) and ethnicity (0 = White British, 1 = Mixed Heritage, 2 = Indian, etc.) EXECUTE . Having transformed and standardised our variables for analysis, we move on to estimating a multiple regression of number of days of poor mental health on age and sex. In the previous examples, we did not talk about what happens when one or more of the variables has missing values for a given case. The function group contains many useful, common functions that may be used for calculating values for new variables (e.g., mean, logarithm). If you run the above code, you should get results that look like the following: You should see that as long as a particular row has a value of Yes for at least one of q1, q2, or q3, it will have a value of 1 for any_yes. *Set up a vector. You can check this in the Values section of the variable view: SEC is a very important variable in the social sciences and in many circumstances this fairly fine-grained variable with 9 categories is appropriate. Below are the categorical variables that could tell me the quality of health available to them. To check that the new variable computed correctly, you can manually calculate the averages for a few cases in your dataset just to spot-check that the computation worked correctly. For example, if you are grouping BMI you might use the name ’BMIgroup’. That is, there must be valid values for each input variable in order for the computation to work. It looks like we can create scatterplots here. There are two easy solutions for looping through variables (easier compared to using Python in SPSS). If … If you look at the commands you can see where you could make quick and easy edits to alter the process: VARIABLE LABELS is where the name and label are defined for example. Variables can be combined in SPSS by adding or multiplying them together. Attempting to teach you how to write syntax would probably be a fruitless exercise. It may appear as though we are giving you some sort of shortcut. Usually you enter these commands through the menus. N/A, Do not know, left blank) which can be useful. Click the Change button to make it appear in the Numeric Variable -> Output Variable box. SEC is often collapsed to a three class version, which combines higher and lower managerial and professional (categories 1 and 2), intermediate, small employers and lower supervisory (categories 3 to 5) and semi-routine, routine and unemployed groups (categories 6 to 8). It is also useful to explore whether the computation you specified was applied correctly to the data. We can check the syntax that was executed by looking at the log in the Output Viewer window. This works because the Lickert scale variables all have the same “units” (number of answer choices). Usually you enter these commands through the menus. the number 1 in a new variable. We have already seen that this can take a while! I need to combine these two variables into a different, new variable which now categorizes the item as either blank, knowledge, behavior, or strength, with these conditions: if Var1 rated as a "0" the new variable would be marked "BLANK" if Var1 rated 1 and Var 2 rated either 2, 3, or 0 the new variable would be marked "knowledge" Ask Question Asked 4 years, 4 months ago. Hello All, I am completely new to spss, and am trying to use spss to generate a variable on the quality of health service available to the residents of an area. Hi, I am new on SPSS, I hope you can provide some insights on the following. We will therefore give it the shortened name in SPSS of ‘bothasp’. To find a specific function, simply click one of the function groups in the Function Group list. We have already seen that this can take a while! If you create a frequency table of this variable (Analyze > Descriptives > Frequencies), you'll notice that there are many rows of the table, and that some of the rows of the table are identical except for differences in capitalization: If we want to merge the otherwise-identical categories of "Art History" and "Art history", we'll need to transform this variable so that the characters are all uppercased or all lowercased. You can write your own syntax expressions to compute variables (and it is often faster and more convenient to do so!) This was a rather quick tour of the variable view but hopefully you know how to enter your variables and adjust or edit their properties. Simply select the data type from the drop down menu in each cell (see below). If we go back to the ADHD example used at the start of this section, it implies that anyone whose mother, father, or biological sibling has been diagnosed with ADHD, is themselves considered to have a risk factor for ADHD. We have whizzed through the process of computing and recoding variables. To compute string variables, the general syntax is virtually identical. In this video Jarlath Quinn demonstrates how to use the compute procedure to calculate the mean of a number of variables to create one combined variable, and also how to use the count values procedure to count how many times a particular value occurs across a series of variables in order to create an overall count. For example, you may want to round values to one decimal place (Extension A) or apply a transformation which turns a raw exam score into a percentage. Viewed 480 times 3. There are many kinds of calculations you can specify by selecting a variable (or multiple variables) from the left column, moving them to the center text field, and using the blue buttons to specify values (e.g., “1”) and operations (e.g., +, *, /). B The left column lists all of the variables in your dataset. You need to click on the Add button after each change of value to move it into the Old -> New window in the bottom right. Click Help to see what the abbreviations represent. If you are analysing your data using multiple regression and any of your independent variables were measured on a nominal or ordinal scale, you need to know how to create dummy variables and interpret their results. Researchers often want to combine two or more variables in order to create a new variable. We rarely use this! This expression must include one or more variables from your dataset, and can use arithmetic or functions. This inevitably results in variable names that make no sense to anyone but the researcher! I want to create a new variable using the last scores of participants ... so I want to import only T3 score to a new variable. Each variable in your dataset is entered on a row in the Variable View and each column represents a certain setting or property that you can adjust for each variable in the corresponding cell. To compute a new variable, click Transform > Compute Variable. When specifying the formula for a new variable, you have to option to include or not include spaces around the equals sign and/or after the commas between arguments in a function. There are 8 categories for this variable, and a ninth category for missing data so the values range between 0 and 9. The threshold for elevation is specific to age group (30s, 40s, 50s, 60+) and gender. A Target Variable: The name of the new variable that will be created during the computation. Let’s generate a frequency table of our new variable to check that it looks okay (See Page 1.6 if you need to refresh your memory about this). In SPSS, you can modify any function that takes a list of variables as arguments using the .n suffix, where n is an integer indicating how many nonmissing values a given case must have. If you want such a reference book, a recommendation can be found over in our Resources: try Economic and Social Data Service SPSS Guide (Chapter 4). What does this mean? Whatever you have requested in your syntax, be it the creation of a new variable or a statistical analysis of existing variables – will then appear in your Data Editor and Output windows. I would like to create a new variable (an ID variable) which would number each case in my data, starting with 1 and ending with n, the number of cases in the file. It is also useful to explore whether the computation you specified was applied correctly to the data. This expression says that the new variable will be calculated as variable Weight multiplied by 703, divided by the square of variable Height. 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