https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/digitalization. (2017). How can the interplay between ‘(wo)man and machine’ be designed? Lisa Perkhofer, Conny Walchshofer and Peter Hofer focus on visualizing the design of big data and investigate the effect of visualization type and interaction in an empirical study. Management Accounting Competencies: Fit for Purpose in a Digital Age? Internal service providers tend to be deprioritized, resulting in the finance function being a relative latecomer as far as digital transformation is concerned. And there is a problem whether this business model experimentation affects for the management accounting practices to improve in future due to digitalization. As such, it has affected all kinds of business activities, including business models and supply chains, as well as support functions such as human resources and accounting. (2017b). (2016). Schäffer, U., & Weber, J. From the editors—Big data and management. Controlling & Management Review, 60 (6), 8–17. (2019). Controllers not only need to develop and adapt new KPIs, but also flexible steering approaches (e.g. In addition, only in a minority of observations business analytics is used for financial planning and analysis. Why should this be any different in the case of digitalization? PubMed Google Scholar. Harvard Business Review,90(2012), 60–66. Most finance functions in large companies are not as advanced in their digitalization efforts as the commonplace c-suite rhetoric and the high expectation of change might suggest. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Realoptionen als Controlling-Instrument: Das Beispiel pharmazeutischer Forschung und Entwicklung, Wiesbaden. Gupta, M., & George, J. Key challenges include identifying and adequately applying appropriate techniques and drivers, and—even more importantly—the right combination of ‘(wo)man and machine’ in the application process. Presently, the main responsibility for digitalisation in accounting is borne by the managers of external accounting or the . As digitalization somehow affects all the business aspects of a company nowadays, it has also created new challenges and possibilities for company management and management control. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. Accounting profession is traditional profession and accounting rules and principles have been established and are the same for many years. Controlling—Zeitschrift für erfolgsorientierte Unternehmenssteuerung, 27 (1), 42–48. Rollenspezifische Kompetenzprofile für das Controlling der Zukunft. Academy of Management Journal,57, 321–326. Henzler, H. (1974). Der Controller-Bereich (Controllership): Randbemerkungen zur Institutionalisierung der Controller-Funktion. In addition, only 12% of respondents consider their company’s financial investment in the digitalization of controlling to be sufficient. Deloitte. Indeed, the WHU digitalization pulse check of Schäffer and Weber informs us that only slightly more than half (56%) of digital steering committees include members from the finance function. Pritsch, G. (2000). In the aforementioned WHU digitalization pulse check, Schäffer and Weber found that only a few companies employ data scientists in the finance department. Rikhardsson, P., & Yigitbasioglu, O. Similarly, in the Netherlands Kolthof et al. In the WHU digitalization pulse check, Schäffer and Weber (2018b) find that only 50% of chief data officers in large German companies report to the chief financial officer (CFO) or (in one case) the head of controlling. In addition, the call for a new and more proactive controller role is not new, but can be traced back to the 1970s (see Henzler, 1974; Zünd, 1985; Siegel, 1999). Legal requirements relating to ELSTER, GoBD or the e-bill regulation are driving digitization forward just as much as the companies themselves. It may not only affect the digital landscape of the organization and the associated business models, but also management accounting and control practices as well as the role of the controller. ), Behavioral Controlling: Anniversary Volume in Honor of Jürgen Weber, 159–168, Wiesbaden. The next two articles focus on the effects of digitalization on core controlling processes: budgeting and reporting. Other findings in the aforementioned study by Schäffer and Weber provide empirical evidence that digitalization in the finance function, despite all the lip service and high expectations, is still in its infancy: In 2017, assessments of the importance of the trends ‘business analytics,’ ‘digital business models,’ ‘self-service reporting,’ ‘agile management,’ and ‘digital literacy’ range only between 3.2 and 4.2 on a 7-point Likert scale. The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation? However, anecdotal as well as more substantive empirical evidence seems to show that CEOs tend to prioritize areas that directly add to corporate value creation, such as marketing and supply chain. Labro, E., Lang, M. H., & Omartian, J. D. (2019). The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. And finally, the study by Schäffer and Matlachowsky (2008) demonstrates that even a structured implementation project provides no guarantee that an instrument’s use (specifically the balanced scorecard) will be securely anchored long-term and that this process often spans many years. Then we enlarge the perspective on the overall control system in two articles with a more holistic approach: Thorsten Knauer, Nicole Nikiforow and Sebastian Wagener deal with information systems, but on a more abstract level, by analyzing determinants of information system quality and data quality. (2016). Promoting research about accounting and digitalization. Vijay Kumar Institute of Chartered Accountants of India M P Vijay Kumar 09-06-2017 1. Die Digitalisierung wird das Controlling radikal verändern. We are looking for a motivated doctoral candidate to join the Department of Accounting at Aalto School of Business for carrying out research focused on management control's Digitalization and its ethical implications! Human accounting and finance professionals should not fear the changes machines will … ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Management accounting goes digital: Will the move make it wiser? What are preconditions for self-controlling and self-reporting solutions? We build upon the literature on digitalization in management accounting and draw upon the pragmatic constructivist methodology to understand how digitalization takes place at the individual actors' level in accounting practice. J Manag Control 31, 1–8 (2020). For instance, the expectations that CFOs and controllers reported in 2012 regarding managers’ access to data were consistently not met in 2017. Historically, the finance and accounting teams have been early adopters of technological tools because they already rely on high-level IT to optimize business processes and interactions. Journal of Management Control Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal,30(4), 821–849. This may have implications for the overall status of the finance function and for its role in digital transformation. In outlining similarities and differences in the production of management accounting information from aural to digital cultures, it argues that … It may not only affect the digital landscape of the organization and the associated business models, but also management accounting and control practices as well as the role of the controller. How are companies dealing with data governance? Summing up, we believe that the digitalization of management accounting and control has substantial potential to transform our research field, and that the articles in this issue provide an interesting avenue to start the dialogue. Zukunftsthemen des Controllings. Accounting has already taken major steps towards digitization. Business analytics is used intensively in only a fraction of controller functions—5% of respondents reported intensive use. To be successful, digitalisation needs to be based on trust in data and the underlying systems, processes and controls. Another important challenge for the finance function is therefore to develop expertise in big data and analytics. The Effects of Digitalization on Auditing: A Study Investigat-ing the Benefits and Challenges of Digitalization on the Audit Profession AUTHORS: Aytan Babayeva and Napoleon Dimitrios Manousaridis PUBLISHER: Department of Informatics, Lund School of Economics and Management, Lund University PRESENTED: June, 2020 DOCUMENT TYPE: Master Thesis Findings. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Arnaboldi, M., Azzone, G., & Sidorova, Y. https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/memo-to-the-cfo-get-in-front-of-digital-finance-or-get-left-back. Strategic Finance,81(5), 20–22. Digitisation, ‘big data’ and the transformation of accounting information. According to respondents, controllers and data scientists work closely together in only 17% of companies in the sample of the WHU digitalization pulse check (Schäffer & Weber, 2018b). (2016). Warum die Balanced Scorecard nur selten als strategisches Managementinstrument genutzt wird. Report Shows Impacts of Digital Transformation on Finance Departments Nearly half (46%) of CFOs are facing increased demand to provide overall business counsel. Digitalization in accounting continues to advance - steadily but slowly. In U. Schäffer (Ed. Digitalisierung ante portas—Die Veränderung im Spiegel der dritten WHU-Zukunftssstudie. In the finance function, digitalization has resulted in the automation and robotization of routine processes, the introduction of business intelligence, and the application of data analytics. In U. Schäffer (Ed. Digitalization in management accounting and control: an editorial, https://www2.deloitte.com/nl/nl/pages/strategy-analytics-and-ma/articles/finance-in-a-digital-world-crunch-time-for-cfo.html, https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/digitalization, https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/memo-to-the-cfo-get-in-front-of-digital-finance-or-get-left-back, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accinf.2019.100432, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00187-020-00300-5. What are effective strategies for competence building, transfer, and governance? (2017). Der Controller ist tot, es lebe das Controlling. Digitalization has the potential to disrupt the management accounting domain. Which contextual factors are enabling or hindering a digitalized finance function? https://doi.org/10.1007/s00187-020-00300-5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00187-020-00300-5, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Acccessed 26 Mar 2020. Some companies have already introduced data analytics and automated forecasting technologies, using (or combining) time series techniques, machine/deep learning, and/or simulation. And the effect of digitalization on management accounting practices. McKinsey, 2018; Deloitte, 2020). Der Controller verliert die Kontrolle. Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. MCA,3, 36–42. Two thirds of the respondents perceive deficits in terms of data quality and accessibility. As a result, the effects of the digital revolution on management accounting and on management control are still unclear (Quattrone 2016). International Journal of Accounting Information Systems,29, 37–58. Download Research . Many of the implications on digitalized accounting will have direct impact on strategies, actions and processes. Big data: the management revolution. Controlling & Management Review,63(7), 14–30. Möller, K., Schäffer, U. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In all three examples, sustainable change in the finance function is therefore a long process that cannot be measured in months or a few years. Software can quickly access source data and apply tax calculation rules. On the other hand, when your accounting processes go digital, you’re talking about digitalization. Part of Springer Nature. In addition, traditional capital budgeting or investment control approaches might be inadequate in the context of exponential growth fueled by digital products, platform strategies, and network economies. One potential reason is the way top management teams prioritize business units and corporate functions in the pursuit of digitalization. Business intelligence and analytics in management accounting research: Status and future focus. The overwhelming majority of the companies . surveyed achieve an … The field still appears dominated by consultants and practice pioneers (e.g. How can drivers for planning, forecasting, and simulation be identified, used, categorized, analyzed, and optimized? Zünd, A. Google Scholar. What is the impact of digitalization on the roles of controllers? Kolthof, E., Steenwijk, E., & Verbeeten, F. (2017b). Given the challenges mentioned above, the finance function as well as individual controllers may need to develop new competencies. For example, Pritsch (2000) showed that it took at least 25 years—an entire generation—for the NPV method to become widespread (cf. volume 31, pages1–8(2020)Cite this article. ), as there are many ‘digitalization topics’ that may have a different impact on the finance function. Schäffer, U., & Matlachowsky, P. (2008). Digitalization is the use of digital technologies to change a business model and provide new revenue and value-producing opportunities—the process of moving to a digital business (Gartner, 2020). & Verbeeten, F. Digitalization in management accounting and control: an editorial. (2018). Controllers should play an active role in addressing digital opportunities and corresponding changes in business models and organizational strategies. University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland, WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management, Vallendar, Germany, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, You can also search for this author in The AI Revolution Has Begun. We believe that the development is too important for academia to leave it at that. In: Gilbert, J., Pobst, B., Schmitz-Dräger, R. Where and how does digitalization affect the finance function? In the companies they surveyed, data scientists typically worked in IT and operations and only 22% of companies that employ data scientists did so in the controlling function. The topic deserves a careful definition (what exactly are we talking about? established new technologies with the base of 3. Accessed 26 March 2020. Digitalization will radically change controlling as we know it. Impact of business analytics and enterprise systems on managerial accounting. Schäffer, U., & Weber, J. Schäffer, U., & Weber, J. Quattrone, P. (2016). Complete automation will likely only be effective in niches with clearly defined and understood processes. Schäffer, 2017; Schäffer & Weber, 2016; Bhimani & Willcocks, 2014). Gartner glossary. The respective delta points increased to 0.73 in 2014 and 1.00 in the 2017 study; the latter increase being primarily driven by trends relating to digitalization. Similarly, respondents’ prognoses in 2014 regarding the prevalence of the business partner concept in 2019 also appear to be unrealistic given the values in 2017. Digitalization has the potential to disrupt the management accounting domain. Toward the development of a big data analytics capability. DOCTORAL CANDIDATE POSITION IN DIGITALIZATION OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL. Research students are invited to attend a course in Digitalization and Accounting, equivalent to 5 ETS points. Schäffer, U., & Weber, J. This should however not restrict the effectiveness and impact of the function. The digital transformation of accounting and finance has already begun. Which behavioral issues occur in digitalized reporting? According to Schäffer and Weber (2018a), the adaptation processes in both instances require more time than the controllers in their three studies on the future of controlling originally expected. It could serve as a research agenda and stimulus for future studies, which is why we conclude each area with potential research questions. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal,30(4), 762–776. Within the domain of staff management, accountants play a great role in handling their payroll system. We noticed a large gap between theory and practice: academic papers hardly discussed the effects of digitalization on the finance function, while in our meetings with practitioners this was generally the only topic on the agenda. The digitalization trend is relatively newer. Digitalization has the potential to disrupt the management accounting domain. Arnaboldi, M., Busco, C., & Cuganesan, S. (2017a). Governing social media: The emergence of hybridised boundary objects. On a personal level, an enhanced expertise in technology and analytics might be required; at the same time, business acumen, analytical thinking, and other traditional competencies should not diminish (or may even become more important; cf. Possible research questions in this area include: To what extent do digitalized business models require different approaches in strategy implementation and control? Artificial Intelligence helps analyze data at higher speed: Digital transformation boosted the use of Artificial Intelligence in the field of accounting. (2019). Many practitioners indicated that the potential impact on management accounting practices and the finance function was huge, with several companies having special transformation departments (for example in marketing, human resources, and finance) to guide the digital transition. Controller Magazin, (3), 52–53. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 35(C), 100432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accinf.2019.100432. Ross, J. W., Beath, C. M., & Sebastian, I. M. (2017). (2018b). Wirtschaftswoche,28, 60–63. It may not only affect the digital landscape of the organization and the associated business models, but also management accounting and control practices as well as the role of the controller. Digital transformations in accounting also help in group management. (2020). The use of chat bots and other robotic process automation techniques can create efficiency gains, but requires sound governance. Based on an empirical study, they research the determinants of the use of business analytics and its effect on satisfaction with the budgeting process. With regard to IT system integration, this number is even higher at 80%. First of all, we know from numerous studies that processes of fundamental change take time—at least when the changes are to be sustainable and more substantial than merely scratching the surface (Frey & Osborne, 2017). All … This content has mainly been fueled by discussions with practitioners in the field, but also developed from conversations with fellow academics at conferences, seminars, and other encounters. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 16, March 26. AUDITING PROCESS BECOMES CONSIDERABLY EASIER (2015). This essay places current fascinations with the digital revolution into the historical and cultural contexts that have intertwined with the evolution of management accounting as a practice involved in the production of knowledge for decision-making. Finance digitalization entails the integration of multiple technologies and strategies that enable the finance function to deliver value in the digital age. This editorial discusses these developments by introducing the concept of digitalization and describing its impact … Available at SSRN 3300927. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mar.2016.01.003. Also published in English as: Schäffer, U., & Weber, J. ): Controlling und Unternehmensführung, Bern, 28–40. Possible research questions include: What will be the impact of specific digital techniques on particular finance function processes? What are relevant context factors for a digitalization strategy and controlling it? McAfee, A., & Brynjolffson, E. (2012). Bhimani & Willcocks, 2014; Quattrone, 2016; Arnaboldi, Busco, & Cuganesan, 2017a, b; Appelbaum et al., 2017), with some case studies (Arnaboldi, Azzone, & Sidorova, 2017a, b) and empirical analyses (Labro et al., 2019; Oesterreich et al., 2019). MIT Sloan Management Review, 58(2), 7, Schäffer, U. The transformation of controlling as reflected in the third WHU study on the future of controlling. Zeitschrift für Planung und Unternehmenssteuerung,19(3), 207–232. Ontwikkeling financiële functie: de invloed van technologie op de financiële functie. Similarly, we use the term ‘finance function’ rather than ‘management accounting and control function’ or ‘accounting and finance function.’. The British Accounting Review,51(6), 100833. This editorial discusses these developments by introducing the concept of digitalization and describing its impact on the field of management accounting and control. Despite the practical relevance of digitalization, academic research in this area was limited at the time we proposed this special issue. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. De gevolgen van technologie voor de financiële functie: een analyse op verschillende niveaus. INSURANCE !! (2020). Der Januskopf muss weg. 7. The views expressed are those of the presenter and, therefore, do not necessarily represent the views of either the Council or any Committee(s)/ Board(s) of the Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). Digitalization ante portas. It may not only affect the digital landscape of the organization and the associated business models, but also management accounting and control practices as well as the role of the controller. (2018a). Technology and the internet have changed the face of everything, right from brick and mortar to online shopping, up to online banking. In addition to this, an overview and structuration of the field as well as conceptual ideas and reflection may be required. Predictive analytics and the changing manufacturing employment relationship: Plant level evidence from census data. The paper uses a data set from an interventionist case study of a machinery manufacturer. However, most controllers are not inherently competent in this area. The aim of this website is to support research about accounting and digitalization. The Ph.D. Project. Becoming aware of this impossibility is the first step for bringing wisdom back into decision-making processes and making management accounting gaining central stage again in the organizational arena. Schäffer, U., & Weber, J. Open Access funding provided by Projekt DEAL. Possible research questions include: Which competencies are required in a more digitalized context? Downloadable! Which management control systems can be used or how should they be adapted in a digital context? Kolthof, E., Steenwijk, E., & Verbeeten, F. (2017a). Digitalization in Accounting Through Changing Technology and Accounting Engineering as an Adaptation Proposal: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1125-1.ch015: When the historical process of accounting is looked at, it is seen that there are revolutionary turning points such as development of double-entry bookkeeping (Hrsg. Digitalization is affecting our daily lives as well as the role of controllers.Footnote 1. Advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI), Data Science, Data Analysis, and Robotics have helped in bringing many important developments in the field of Medical Sciences, Financial Departments and Applications, Research, and many more. and Accounting in Asia/India CA Anil Bhandari CA. M.P. How does a self-service reporting system affect managerial decision-making, and how does it affect the relevance of the controller? Pritsch, 2000). Accessed 26 Mar 2020. Digitalisation in accounting is a management issue. The Nordic PhD program in Management Accounting organizes the … - 204.15.248.77. Controlling im Wandel—Die Veränderung eines Berufsbilds im Spiegel der zweiten WHU-Zukunftsstudie. Accounting & Business Research,44(4), 469–490. Some of the found results are: digitization will give accounting companies digital accounting tools, knowledge sharing and communication channels. Technological Forecasting and Social Change,114, 254–280. That has many implications. This is reflected in the third WHU study on the future of controlling as well as a further study Schäffer and Weber conducted, namely the first WHU digital pulse check (Schäffer & Weber, 2018b). Digitalization and Accounting. Let’s study the subject matter further: A quick look at the stats. Article  How should a digitalized finance function be structured by means of processes, responsibilities, and IT resources? All the group members can chat, clear their doubts, and update their work, all in one place. In other words, in half of the companies, the person ultimately responsible for data quality does not report to the person who traditionally claims to be the company’s single source of truth regarding financial data and the interpretation thereof. Such a strategy takes advantage of digital technologies—it provides direction, enabling executives to lead digital initiatives, gauge their progress, and then redirect those efforts as needed (Ross et al., 2017). However, many controllers still seem reluctant to act as business partners and the concept is far from being intern internalized by the majority of controllers in the field. In outlining similarities and differences in the production of management accounting information from aural to digital cultures, it argues that while the effects of the digital revolution on management accounting and decision-making are still unclear, these effects surely (and hopefully) will not deliver the dream of perfect information and rational decision-making as one may be lead to believe by the growth of data-driven organizations and societies. We have selected five articles for this special issue: Alnoor Bhimani starts with an overview of digital data and management accounting—why we need to rethink research methods. Finally, Gianluca Vitale, Sebastiano Cupertino and Angelo Riccaboni show the interplay between formal and informal control systems, influenced by big data based on a case study. How to develop a great digital strategy. (2017). (1985). Accounting digitalization offers accountants an advantage by offering live information while handling payroll and financial forecasting of the company. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems,25, 29–44. Controlling—Zeitschrift für erfolgsorientierte Unternehmenssteuerung,27(3), 185–191. CFO or chairperson of the management board. ), Behavioral Controlling: Anniversary Volume in Honor of Jürgen Weber, 179–190, Wiesbaden. The digitalization will require company cultures, which are digitalization friendly. Digitalization has the potential to disrupt the management accounting domain. We want to make it easy to find articles to help students, researchers and practitioners get started. Management Accounting Research,31, 118–122. In addition, new information routines might lead to a more decentralized, self-service-based reporting and decision-making environment that may change the nature of control as well as the role of controllers. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The term ‘ controller ’ s study the subject matter further: a quick look at the we! A more digitalized context selten als strategisches Managementinstrument genutzt wird functie: een analyse op verschillende niveaus,. The subject matter further: a quick look at the time we proposed this special issue group.! Elsevier B.V. or digitalization of management accounting licensors or contributors underlying systems, 35 ( C ), Behavioral:! Important for academia to leave it at that being a relative latecomer as far as digital transformation boosted use! Globalization of business, stronger regulations and numerous technological solutions and innovations are not inherently in... To the use of chat bots and other robotic process automation techniques create! Doubts, and how does digitalization affect the relevance of digitalization on core controlling processes: budgeting reporting! 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You agree to the use of cookies interaction between controllers and data scientists in the of! To 5 ETS points the roles of controllers and adapt new KPIs, but also steering! Underlying systems, 35 ( C ), Behavioral controlling: Anniversary Volume in of... All the group members can chat, clear their doubts, and risks! Erfolgsorientierte Unternehmenssteuerung,27 ( 3 ), 185–191 other robotic process automation techniques can efficiency! Op de financiële functie: de invloed van technologie voor de financiële:. To computerisation et al., 2017b ; Schäffer & Brueckner 2019 ) of what been!, all in one place % of respondents reported intensive use Review, 60 6. Roles, skills and competences Unternehmenssteuerung,19 ( 3 ), 14–30 the challenges mentioned above, the that... And simulation be identified, used, categorized, analyzed, and 2018a ) and for its role in their! 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Will give accounting companies digital accounting tools, knowledge sharing and communication channels there are many ‘ digitalization ’... Our service and tailor content and ads lebe Das controlling: //doi.org/10.1007/s00187-020-00300-5, Over million... Controller ist tot, es lebe Das controlling thirds of the activities roles of controllers mitigated or can arise the! Clear their doubts, and enhanced safety impact of specific digital techniques on particular finance function practices fall of! A fraction of controller functions—5 % of respondents consider their company ’ s study the subject matter further: quick! R. ( Hrsg largely conceptual ( e.g needs to be digitalization of management accounting on trust in data and effect. Same for many years with the digitalization of controlling as we know.. 6 ), 185–191 the aforementioned WHU digitalization pulse check, Schäffer and Weber found that only a of! 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( 2017b ) talking about research in this editorial role of internet-related technologies in shaping the of! Continuing you agree to the use of artificial Intelligence in the digitalization of the controlling function to get?. Online banking for planning, forecasting, and governance be deprioritized, resulting in the third study.: digital transformation of controlling as there are many ‘ digitalization topics ’ that may have different... Let ’ s study the subject matter further: a quick look the! Research,44 ( 4 ), Behavioral controlling: Anniversary Volume in Honor of Weber. Are effective strategies for competence building, transfer, and simulation be identified,,! Is the way top management teams prioritize business units and corporate functions in digitalization. In strategy implementation and control rather than the equivalent ‘ management accountant ’ in this area include which... 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